2009-2010 Committee:

Editor-in-Chief Sarah Miller
Publisher Rachel Bayefsky
Typesetters Sam Ferguson and Olaf Davis
Webmaster Bonolo Mathibela
Cover Design Hana Ross
Editors Sophie Butler,
Olaf Davis,
Sam Ferguson,
Cleo Hanaway,
Lisa Herzog,
Lisa Martin,
Zita Patai,
Casandra Sampaio,
Camillo de Vivanco,
Hansna Zaher
SCR Review Committee Professor Laura Marcus,
Dr David Parrott,
Professor David Gavaghan,
Professor Stephen Mulhall,
Mr David Palfreyman,
Professor Jeremy Thomas,
Dr Elizabeth Frazer,
Professor Alain Townsend,
Dr Bridget Penman


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Volume 5 of The New Collection is available as a PDF download from here. Links to individual articles can be found below.



Articles:

Andrew M. Boggs Evolution of university governance and governance types in England & Scotland
Ciara Dangerfield Keeping perspective: The mathematics behind the response to an epidemic
Charlotte Barker 21st -century pharmacovigilance
Nicole D. Milligan Living with malaria: a bird’s eye view
Darya Protopopova Between brain and soul: Virginia Woolf’s view of Russian literature
Graham Prescott Where have all the big animals gone? Understanding the causes of Late Quaternary megafaunal extinctions.
Rachel Bayefsky Civil disobedience and political obligation: why are we obliged to obey the law, and when are we justified in breaking it?
Aaron Graham ‘I’ll make love like a platoon’: warfare, effeminacy and the disarming of anxiety in George Farquhar’s The Recruiting Officer
Flora Skivington Representation of rural space in Tacita Dean’s Michael Hamburger



Evolution of university governance and governance types in England & Scotland
Andrew M. Boggs
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Understanding the process of evolution of university governance types, and the links between them, is important for appreciating current debates over university accountability and management. Shattock (2006) observed that there are four models of university governance in the United Kingdom: Oxbridge, ancient Scottish, civic university and higher education corporation. These four types, or species, of university governance structures came to exist after centuries of evolution. Each type grew out of earlier models and yet all of these models continue to operate in the twenty-first century.

Keeping perspective: the mathematics behind the response to an epidemic
Ciara Dangerfield
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The potential threat to the global population from a deadly pandemic has received much attention in the last year due to the recent outbreak of the H1N1 virus, more commonly known as swine flu. But as governments are left with excess vaccine for H1N1 due to the number of reported swine flu cases falling short of those originally expected, questions are being asked as to the authenticity of original claims. In this paper we show how mathematical models can be used not only to predict the course of an epidemic but also the effect that control mechanisms will have on the containment of an infection outbreak. Mathematical models therefore provide a powerful and useful tool that can help inform governments and organizational bodies such as the World Health Organisation (WHO) on appropriate and effective control mechanisms to reduce the effects and even prevent a fatal pandemic.

21st -century pharmacovigilance
Charlotte Barker
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Pharmacovigilance involves the investigation, detection and prevention of adverse drug reactions, by the monitoring of data from patient populations on a national and international scale. Globally, the task is coordinated by the WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring, based at the Uppsala Monitoring Centre in Sweden. The success of the process is dependent on effective collaboration between pharmacovigilantes worldwide and a careful statistical analysis of the huge quantities of data being generated, to identify possibly significant new ‘signals’. This article reviews the background of pharmacovigilance, the challenges that we face in the 21st century and areas that will stimulate future research.

Living with malaria: a bird’s eye view
Nicole D. Milligan
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Avian malaria is a vector-transmitted parasitic disease that affects many species of bird across the globe. In some regions it is very prevalent, and birds often live with malarial infections. It does, however, have a serious impact in isolated areas where birds do not have resistance to the parasite; several bird species are now threatened by the recent introduction of avian malaria and its vectors.

Between brain and soul: Virginia Woolf’s view of Russian literature
Darya Protopopova
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This article explores how Virginia Woolf’s discussion of Russian literature throws light on her attitude towards Christianity and the possibility of religious or moral messages in fiction. Woolf was familiar with Dostoevsky’s theological use of the word ‘soul’, as well as with frequent descriptions of Russian Orthodox practices in Russian nineteenth-century novels. Yet, when she discussed the spirituality of Russian literature, she was actually referring to its focus on deep, but morally neutral, human emotions. Nevertheless, Woolf’s interest in the metaphysical searchings of Tolstoy and Dostoevsky should not be underestimated. Justifying her ‘philosophy’ in Night and Day, she wrote: ‘Yet, if one is to deal with people on a large scale & say what one thinks, how can one avoid melancholy?’. It is this melancholy and sadness that she praised in the writings of Chekhov, Dostoevsky, and Tolstoy. As she explained in ‘The Russian Point of View’, those two characteristics stemmed from the Russians’ repeated attempts to answer the question: ‘Why live?’.

Where have all the big animals gone? Understanding the causes of Late Quaternary megafaunal extinctions.
Graham Prescott
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The majority of large, terrestrial animal species present 100,000 years ago are now extinct. Opinion has been divided as to whether these extinctions were caused by humans, rapid climate change, or a combination of the two. The arguments have generally been qualitative; we performed a quantitative analysis to determine which factors best correlated with the pattern of extinctions. We found the pattern of global megafaunal extinctions to be best explained by models containing both human and climatic factors. Understanding how human impacts and rapid climate change interacted to cause extinctions in the past may be crucial to preventing extinctions in the near future.

Civil disobedience and political obligation: why are we obliged to obey the law, and when are we justified in breaking it?
Rachel Bayefsky
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This paper investigates the nature and function of civil disobedience, with particular attention to the relationship between civil disobedience and political obligation, or the obligation to obey the laws of one’s own country. Two influential efforts to make sense of the relationship between civil disobedience and political obligation are examined: an account presented by political philosopher John Rawls, and traditional ‘consent theory.’ These efforts, it is argued, are ultimately unsuccessful. Rawls’s account does not acknowledge the radical nature of the views put forward by many of those involved in civil disobedience, and traditional consent theory does not provide enough room for civil disobedience as a unique category of political action. A third thesis about the relationship between civil disobedience and political action is then presented; this thesis draws in part on the work of political theorist Michael Walzer. According to the thesis of this paper, civil disobedience is not a breach of our ordinarily absolute political obligation to the state; rather, it arises from conflicts among our obligations towards various social bodies, including the state.

‘I’ll make love like a platoon’: warfare, effeminacy and the disarming of anxiety in George Farquhar’s The Recruiting Officer
Aaron Graham
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Recent literature on George Farquhar’s The Recruiting Officer (1706) has emphasised its status as a piece of political polemic, intended to disarm civilian anxieties about military conscription and the place of the unfamiliar standing army in contemporary society. This article suggests that Farquhar also intended his play to disarm the fears of his fellow military officers, upon whom changes in warfare had imposed a disordered gender identity, verging into effeminacy. By demonstrating that duty could be reconciled with matrimony, and that military qualities such as discipline were integral to success in courtship, Farquhar offered an alternative masculine identity intended to allay the concerns of other officers.

Representation of rural space in Tacita Dean’s Michael Hamburger
Flora Skivington
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Tacita Dean’s Michael Hamburger (2007) was commissioned as part of Waterlog (2007), a series of artistic works that seek to investigate the East Anglian landscape and inspired by writer W.G. Sebald’s writing about the area. Shot at Michael Hamburger’s East Anglian farmhouse, Dean’s 28 minute film portrait concentrates on Hamburger the eminent poet, critic and translator as a grower of apples and on the orchard he planted in his Suffolk garden. The nature of the imagined rural space that Michael Hamburger creates has an aliveness and present focused quality, which includes themes of immigration, translation and innovation as well as themes of loss and memory. Instead of looking at rural space as an imaginative space between past and present, Michael Hamburger reveals a sense of rural space as a live space, an ever-becoming imaginative space that lives alongside urban realities.