2014-2015 Committee:

Editor-in-Chief Arnold Mathijssen
Publisher Eleanor Mcdonald
Typesetter Arnold Mathijssen
Cover Design Eleanor Mcdonald
Webmaster Rina Hay
Editorial Committee Arnold Mathijssen
Nicholas Goode,
Conal Grealis,
Martin Hallmannsecker,
Eleanor Mcdonald,
Bhavin Siritanaratkul.
SCR Review Committee Dr. Chimène Bateman,
Prof. Martin Ceadel,
Dr. Jasper van Dijk,
Prof. Ann Jefferson FBA,
Prof. Catriona Kelly FBA,
Dr. Jonathan Leader-Maynard,
Prof. Robert Parker FBA,
Dr. Peter Sloman,
Dr. Alexi Vellianitis,
Prof. Richard Whittington.


Download:

Volume 10 of The New Collection is available as a PDF download from here.


Articles:

Willem van den Berg Water, Blood, & Oil: Examining the Water War Hypothesis
Tanja Collavo The Internationalization of Disneyland: Where Dreams Come True Marketing Success
Stephen Dillon Review of literature on the issue of Somali piracy including analysis of the UK Governments policy response
Stephen Dillon The concept of vulnerability and its relationship to security: using the example of the ongoing conflict in Syria
Nicholas Goode The BoulezianWork-Concept
Conal Grealis A translation of Marcel Schwob's Imaginary Lives
Matthew de la Hey Aspirations and Incentives: An Investigation into Changing Agricultural Behaviour in Rural South Africa
Mike J. Lindsay What impact did John Paul II have on the Revolutions of 1989? A Critical analysis of the Polish Pope
Christopher de L'isle Coins and Ancient History
Meindert Peters Interpreting Amour: Love as an Endless Hermeneutic



Water, Blood, & Oil: Examining the Water War Hypothesis
Willem van den Berg

The idea that freshwater scarcity is a global security threat has gained currency in both academic and policy circles. Oftentimes an analogy is made comparing the possible role of freshwater in the 21st century to oil's bloody role in the 20th century. This article critically examines the water war hypothesis and the comparison between freshwater scarcity and oil scarcity and comes to several conclusions. Firstly, freshwater is fundamentally different to oil in that it is usually used in non-consumptive ways, but also that it has a low level of substitutability and that it is not economically viable to transport in large quantities. This has significant political, economic, and security consequences. Secondly, though there is some theoretical and empirical evidence supporting the water war hypothesis, the evidence is underwhelming and does not reflect the large amount of rhetoric on water wars. Thirdly, this does not mean the concept is without merit, but merely that the critical level of water scarcity used in the hypothesis has not been met yet.

The Internationalization of Disneyland: Where Dreams Come True Marketing Success
Tanja Collavo

Disneyland theme parks are perceived everywhere in the world as happy places where nothing can go wrong. When they first opened abroad, however, they encountered many issues and in two cases out of three caused significant financial losses for the Disney corporation. This article will explore the difficulties in internationalizing a very American experience and Disney's marketing rationale for opening a new park in Shanghai in the face of all the risks and problems this further international expansion might bring.

Review of literature on the issue of Somali piracy including analysis of the UK Governments policy response: Preventing and Reducing Piracy off the Coast of Somalia
Stephen Dillon

With a global cost of $30 billion, piracy is of significant international concern. For Somalia however, development of piracy originated as a local struggle against illegal fishing and the disposal of toxic waste which threatened the livelihood of an impoverished population already suffering from famine, drought and political turmoil. This literature review examines some of the key texts on the issue of piracy in and around the territorial waters of Somalia and the Gulf of Aden, to provide a contextual background for subsequent analysis of the UK Governments Policy Preventing and Reducing Piracy off the Coast of Somalia. The review finds a preoccupation with the economic impact of piracy and Islamic terrorism, but also consensus on the solution to Somali piracy being on land rather than through sole deployment of a maritime force. The analysis finds both strengths and weaknesses in the UK Governments policy response, and although overwhelmingly maritime focused, exhibits a robust and coherent response to piracy and the endemic problems of Somalia found on land.

The concept of vulnerability and its relationship to security: using the example of the ongoing conflict in Syria
Stephen Dillon

At present, there seems no end in sight to the ongoing conflict in Syria. Despite normative assumptions of the state being responsible for protection of its own citizens, paradoxically state security can increase the vulnerability of sections of its own population. This paper highlights the most salient aspects of this extraordinary relationship between vulnerability and security in the context of Syria, and shows that a traditional state-centred (neorealist) approach to security, is insufficient to explain the full range of vulnerabilities experienced by those caught up in the ongoing Syrian conflict - a Human Security approach is a more valid analytical tool.

The Boulezian Work-Concept
Nicholas Goode

Throughout the twentieth century, ideas and ideologies surrounding openness and flexibility have both inspired and frustrated artists, writers, and musicians. In this essay, the writings and music of Pierre Boulez are examined in order to describe an alternative perspective of openness that motivates his practices. By close reading of his compositions and theoretical writings, the genealogy of his theories of openness is traced from the 1950s to the present day. It is found that unlike his contemporaries who typically destabilised musical materials, Boulez situates openness at the level of the work-concept itself, thus imagining a radically different conceptualisation of music.

A translation of Marcel Schwob's Imaginary Lives
Conal Grealis

Despite enjoying considerable influence and renown in the late nineteenth century, Marcel Schwob (1867-1905) was all but forgotten over the course of the century that followed. He was particularly well regarded during his lifetime for his remarkable erudition and the wealth of scholarly essays, articles, and literary reviews he produced. But it would be short sighted to reduce Schwob to a mere scholar, interested in only the obscure and arcane. In doing so we would overlook both the sensitivity of his work and his commitment to exploring new forms of artistic expression.

Dissatisfied with the attempts of the ancient writers he had studied, Schwob showed particular interest in developing a new form of biography, one which shunned generalised and classified historical accounts in favour of producing something more artistic. 'Art', he said, 'describes individuals and desires only the unique.' This preoccupation with intricacy, with obscurity, with triviality can be read in the twenty-two Imaginary Lives Schwob published in 1896, of which three have been translated here. Each varies considerably in terms of style and narrative voice, but all three are linked by Schwob's flair for expressing in artistic form the lives of individuals of all descriptions, whether real or imagined.

Aspirations and Incentives: An Investigation into Changing Agricultural Behaviour in Rural South Africa
Matthew de la Hey

Various authors have observed the under-cultivation or abandonment of agricultural land historically used by rural South Africans to grow crops in pursuit of self-sufficiency and in fulfilment of cultural imperatives. This article is a summary of research conducted by the author on the changing place of agriculture in rural South African livelihoods, via a study in the Mbotyi village in the ex-Transkei. Fieldwork centred on interviewing people living in these areas was conducted in order to obtain their perspectives and perceptions, with particular emphasis placed on communicating with the youth. Behaviour is changing as a result of environmental pressures, the erosion of traditional patriarchy, limited access to inputs, altered aspirations, and alternative occupations and means of making money, manifesting in constraints on the quantity of available labour. Nevertheless there is still widespread interest in agriculture. It is imperative that policy makers and development workers operate having given deep consideration to the specific difficulties, needs and aspirations of those they seek to impact.

The Boulezian Work-Concept
Nicholas Goode

Throughout the twentieth century, ideas and ideologies surrounding openness and flexibility have both inspired and frustrated artists, writers, and musicians. In this essay, the writings and music of Pierre Boulez are examined in order to describe an alternative perspective of openness that motivates his practices. By close reading of his compositions and theoretical writings, the genealogy of his theories of openness is traced from the 1950s to the present day. It is found that unlike his contemporaries who typically destabilised musical materials, Boulez situates openness at the level of the work-concept itself, thus imagining a radically different conceptualisation of music.

What impact did John Paul II have on the Revolutions of 1989? A Critical analysis of the Polish Pope
Mike J. Lindsay

This essay is an investigation into the influence of Pope John Paul II on the revolutions that took place throughout east-central Europe in 1989. The analysis begins by scrutinizing how post hoc representations of the Pope have defined his contributions to the revolutions of 1989. This is followed by an analysis of primary source materials related to Poland's Solidarity Trade Union movement. The central argument presented here is that claims of the Pope's decisive influence on the 1989 revolutions are somewhat exaggerated. Whilst the Pope was an iconic figure for the trade union, his influence on Solidarity policy, and on the fortunes of Solidarity during the repressive period from 1981 to 1988, is less pronounced than biographers and historians have argued. This essay concludes by suggesting a thorough and integrated history of 1989 is required, one that avoids simplistic and triumphal judgments.

Coins and Ancient History
Christopher de L'isle

The challenge in studying the ancient past is that the source material is sparse and problematic. Ancient literary texts offer narratives of events, but focus on the intrigues and wars of the elites, twisted by their own goals and assumptions, and were often written centuries after the events they describe. Archaeological discoveries provide solid remains of ancient lives - elite and non-elite - but mostly describe long term trends, are blind to phenomena that don't leave material traces, and speak only through their excavators. Inscriptions and ancient papyrus documents generally focus on the specific matter at hand, expecting the reader to supply the very contextual information that modern scholars often seek to discover from them; literally and figuratively they tend to break off just as they are getting interesting.

Interpreting Amour: Love as an Endless Hermeneutic
Meindert Peters

In Amour, the 2012 film by director Michael Haneke, the audience is presented with an idea of love in terms of duration. Anne and Georges, a couple in their eighties, are living their everyday lives when Anne suddenly falls ill. The film portrays the pair as having to constantly renegotiate the understanding they have of one another. This constant reinterpretation resembles French philosopher Jean-Luc Marion's idea of love as an endless hermeneutic. Another person, he argues, presents us with an abundance of information that we can never fully grasp nor negotiate. He calls this saturated phenomenon 'the face' and argues that the only way in which we can react to the impossibility of understanding that it represents is by loving. By reading Amour through Marion's idea of love, this essay will posit an understanding of the film in which the face-to-face relations between Anne and Georges and the constant reinterpretations that their non-understanding requires are foregrounded. Moreover, the film's dramatic conclusion shows not only that love may indeed be eternal in its endless hermeneutic, but also that such an eternity is unbearable when 'the face' remains present even after death.